Publications

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[1 ]
Problemas y modelos en el manejo de las plantaciones forestales [Problems and models in forest plantation management]. Esc. de Ingeniería Forestal, U. of Chile (Thesis). 1968.
Yes, I have been a process modeller :-)
With probably the first, and last, growth model implemented on an analog computer. English summary.  Spanish full text (PDF, 855 Kb).
[2 ]
Indices de sitio para pino insigne en Chile [Site indices for radiata pine in Chile]. Instituto Forestal, Chile. Serie de Investigación, Publ. No.2. 1970.
Based on temporary plots. Pidgin English summary .  Copy (Spanish, PDF, 627 Kb)
[3 ]
Algunos programas en APL [Some programs in APL]. Instituto Forestal, Chile. Informe Técnico 41. 1971.
An APL time-sharing system was market tested by IBM in Holland and Chile ca. 1968.
[4 ]
Perspectivas del abastecimiento de pino insigne a la industria en la región del Bío- Bío [Prospects for the supply of radiata pine to the industry in the Bío-Bío Region]. Presented at the Meeting of Experts in Paper and Cellulose, Santiago, December 1972 (Mimeo.)
A precursor of IFS [ 9 ]. Surprisingly, the forecasts for the end of the Century were not too far off.
[5 ]
Ecuaciones altura-diámetro para pino insigne [Height-diameter equations for radiata pine]. Instituto Forestal, Chile. Nota Técnica 19. 1974.
Yet another h-d study.
[6 ]
Sobre modelos matemáticos de rodal [On mathematical stand models]. Instituto Forestal, Chile. Informe Técnico 48. 1974.
System Theory approach and examples. English summary . English translation (PDF, 191 Kb).  Copy (Spanish, PDF, 550 Kb)
[7 ]
Processing of map information in a minicomputer . University of Georgia (Dissertation). 1976
A rudimentary mini/microcomputer GIS (in 8 Kb of memory!) Developed the "arc" data structure, concepts and terminology later used by ArcInfo. AbstractExcerpts (PDF, 785 Kb).
[8 ]
Modelling stand development with stochastic differential equations. In: Elliott,D.E. (ed) Mensuration Systems for Forest Management Planning. New Zealand Forest Service. Forest Research Institute Symposium No. 20, p.315-334. 1979.
It's all there, although heavy-going. Read [17 ] and [27 ], and perhaps [6 ], first. Then graduate to [13 ], [11 ], and [19 ] (and don't forget [20 ], somewhere.) Full text (re-formatted PDF, 190 Kb).
[9 ]
IFS, an interactive forest simulator for long range planning. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 11, 8-22. 1981.
Descendant still in use . More details and software here . Full PDF text at Journal's web site.
[ 10 ]
Simplified method-of-moments estimation for the Weibull distribution. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 11, 304-306. 1981.
Avoiding iteration. Software . Full PDF text at Journal's web site (missing 'exp' before the brackets in the second equation).
[ 11 ]
A stochastic differential equation model for the height growth of forest stands. Biometrics 39, 1059-1072. 1983.
Should have been the standard method for site index equations, with better marketing :-) Summary . Software .  Text in JSTOR.
[ 12 ]
FOLPI, a forestry-oriented Linear Programming interpreter.  In: Nagumo, H. et al (ed), Proceedings IUFRO Symposium on Forest Management Planning and Managerial Economics, p.293-305. University of Tokyo. 1984.
Still routinely used for harvesting scheduling and planning in New Zealand and elsewhere (some bells and whistles added later.) Unfortunately, the software was caught in FRI's commercialization and became unavailable for a long while. Forest Research sells it now. Abstract . Full text (PDF, 203 Kb).
[ 13 ]
New class of growth models for even-aged stands: Pinus radiata in Golden Downs Forest. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 14, 65-88. 1984.
The only one from the dozen or so New Zealand state-space/stochastic- differential-equation regional growth models to be properly published. Abstract . Full PDF text at Journal's web site.  Simulator .
[ 14 ]
Forest estate modelling (Part 2). In: Levak, H. (ed), 1986 Forestry Handbook . NZ Institute of Foresters (Inc.), Wellington. 1986.
Introduction to harvest scheduling, with special reference to New Zealand. With a newer 1995 Forestry Handbook, I guess that the publishers would not mind if I place the full text here (PDF file, 34 Kb)
[ 15 ]
SEESAW, a visual sawing simulator - Part II: The SEESAW computer program .  In: Kininmonth, J. A. (comp), Proceedings of Conversion Planning Conference, p.107-116. Ministry of Forestry, FRI Bulletin No. 128. 1987.
Early hardware-stretching computer graphics application. Another victim of commercialization. North American rights sold to Weyerhaeuser, who might not have used it but kept it off everybody else. Later versions known as AUTOSAW. Abstract. Slideshow .  See also Todoroki (1988) (PDF).
[ 16 ]
Experience with an advanced growth modelling methodology. In: Ek,A.R., Shifley,S.R. and Burke,T.E. (eds), Forest Growth Modelling and Prediction, p.668-675. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report NC-120. 1988.
Showing-off to the world. Abstract . "Advanced" sounded better than "abstruse" :-)
GTR NC-120 online, USDA . Local copy.
[ 17 ]
Growth modelling - A (re)view. New Zealand Forestry 33 (3), 14-17. 1988.
Look ma, no equations! (well, almost.) Summary. Text at Journal's site (PDF file, 815 Kb).  Errata.   Spanish translation (PDF file, 37 Kb).
[ 17a ]
Letter to the Editor: Pine needles and tree stems. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 18, 236. 1988.
Relationship between surface and projected leaf area. PDF text at Journal's web site.
[18 ]
Strategic planning for forest management with FOLPI (by O. García, B. Manley, and J. Threadgill). FRI, Rotorua, NZ, What's New in Forest Research No. 177. 1989.
[19 ]
Growth modelling - New developments. In: Nagumo, H. and Konohira, Y. (eds), Japan and New Zealand Symposium on Forestry Management Planning, p.152-158.  Japan Association for Forestry Statistics. 1989.
Unhinibited maths, thanks to a receptive Japanese audience. Abstract . Full text (PDF, 79 Kb).
[20 ]
Growth of thinned and pruned stands. In: James, R.N. and Tarlton, G.L. (eds.) New Approaches to Spacing and Thinning in Plantation Forestry: Proceedings of a IUFRO Symposium. Ministry of Forestry, FRI Bulletin No. 151, p.84-97. 1990.
No maths! Plenty of graphs, though. Abstract . Full text (re-formatted PDF, 217 Kb), scanned (PDF, 391 Kb).
[21 ]
Linear Programming and related approaches in Forest Planning . New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 20, 307-331. 1990.
Network formulation of harvest scheduling models, relationships between models I, II and III (or C, B and A), etc. Abstract . Full PDF text at Journal's web site.
[22 ]
A system for the differentiation of Fortran code and an application to parameter estimation in forest growth models. In: Griewank, A. and Corliss, G. F. (eds.) Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application, p.273-285.  Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. 1991.
And now, to something completely different... Actually, a subproduct of the growth modelling efforts. Abstract. The software .
[23 ]
What is a diameter distribution? In: Minowa, M. and Tsuyuki, S. (eds.) Proceedings of the Symposium on Integrated Forest Management Information Systems, p.11-29.  Japan Society of Forest Planning Press. 1992.
Playing with distributions? Read this! Abstract . Full text (PDF, 157 Kb). More in [49].
[24 ]
Sampling for tree-ring analysis. In: Wood, G. and Turner, B. (eds.) Integrating Forest Information Over Space and Time, Proceedings of the International IUFRO Conference, p.110-128.  ANUTECH Pty Ltd, Canberra, Australia. 1992.
Cunningly choosing stem analysis trees. Sampling schemes also promising as alternatives to 3P in forest inventory. Abstract . Full text (PDF, 203 Kb).
[25 ]
Stand growth models: Theory and practice. In: ``Advancement in Forest Inventory and Forest Management Sciences - Proceedings of the IUFRO Seoul Conference'', p.22-45. Forestry Research Institute of the Republic of Korea. 1993.
Raw material for [27 ], plus some bits on self-thinning that did not make it into the journal. Apologies for the narcissism that seems to come across, according to a referee of the journal version. Abstract . Full text (PDF, 248 Kb).
[26 ]
Un método simple para evaluar técnicas de establecimiento [A simple method for evaluating establishment techniques]. In: Barros A., S., Prado D., J. A., and Alvear S., C. (eds) Actas Simposio Los Eucaliptos en el Desarrollo Forestal de Chile . Instituto Forestal. 1994. Text (PDF, 87 Kb).
Spanish version of [31 ]. Equation (2) was eaten by the press (added in the copy here).
[27 ]
The state-space approach in growth modelling. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24, 1894-1903. 1994.
Trying to explain it all. Abstract/TextErrata.  Spanish translation (PDF, 264 Kb). See also [25 ].
[28 ]
Indices de sitio preliminares para eucalipto [Preliminary site indices for eucalypt]. Ciencia e Investigación Forestal 9(1), 5-21. 1995.
Part of the Chilean eucalypt modelling project that got published. Abstract .
[29 ]
Normas para la instalación y medición de parcelas permanentes en plantaciones de eucalipto [Standards for the installation and measurement of permanent sample plots in eucalypt plantations] (by O. García, S. Salas, and C. Zunino). Instituto Forestal, Chile (to appear).
Actually, it seems unlikely now that it will ever appear. Anyway, it is here . Today I would recommend standardizing on an electronic hypsometer, and maybe use its rangefinder to layout circular plots.
[30 ]
Evaluating forest growth models (by J. Vanclay, J. P. Skovsgaard, and O. García). In: Köhl, M. and Gertner, G. Z. (eds.) Caring for the Forest: Research in a Changing World - Statistics, Mathematics and Computers, Proceedings of the Meeting of S4.11-00 at the IUFRO XX World Congress (pp. 11-22.) Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL/FNP), 1996.
Abstract .  Text (PDF)
[31 ]
Easy evaluation of establishment treatments . In: Klemperer, W. D. (ed.) Proceedings of the S4.04 Meetings on Forest Management Planning and Managerial Economics, IUFRO 20th World Congress, Tampere, Finland, August 6-12, 1995 (pp. 89-94.) Virginia Tech, College of Forestry and Wildlife Resources. Publication No. FWS 1-96. 1996.
Neat maths, maybe even practical. Based on [26 ]. Abstract . Full text (PDF, 128 Kb).
[32 ]
Estimating top height with variable plot sizes. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 28, 1509-1517. 1998.
Abstract/text.
[33 ]
Realized gain and prediction of yield with genetically improved Pinus radiata in New Zealand (by S. D. Carson, O. García and J. D. Hayes). Forest Science 45(2), 186-200. 1999.
Abstract .
[34 ]
Height growth of Pinus radiata in New Zealand New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 29(1), 131-145. 1999.
NZ growth models documentation comming up (10 years late). Abstract . Full PDF text at Journal's web site.
[35 ]
Functional differential equations in sustainable forest harvesting . Journal of Forest Planning 6(2), 49-63. 2001.
Not for the mathematically squeamish. Abstract . A preprint (PDF, 648 Kb). Older version here .
[36 ]
Aproximación a la dinámica de los montes gallegos. Existencias y evolución de los tipos forestales en la Provincia de Pontevedra [Approximation to the dynamics of the Galician forests. Stocks and evolution of forest types in Pontevedra Province]. Investigación Agraria - Sistemas y Recursos Forestales 10(2), 291-310. 2001.
English summary . Full text , from journal site .
[37 ]
On bridging the gap between tree-level and stand-level models . In: Rennolls, K. (ed.) Proceedings of IUFRO 4.11 Conference 'Forest Biometry, Modelling and Information Science', University of Greenwich, June 25-29, 2001. http://cms1.gre.ac.uk/conferences/iufro/proceedings/ .
Abstract . Full text available from Greenwich site.
[38 ]
A growth model for eucalypt in Galicia, Spain. (by O. García and F. Ruiz). Forest Ecology and Management 173(1-3), 49-62. 2003.
Abstract/text . Unedited preprint (PDF, 346 Kb).  Errata  (somebody actually read it!)
[39 ]
Dimensionality reduction in growth models:  An example.   Forest Biometry, Modelling and Information Sciences 1, 1-15. 2003.
Text at FBMIS
[40 ]
Structure and dynamics of trembling aspen-white spruce mixed stands near Fort Nelson, B.C. (by Richard D. Kabzems, and Oscar García). Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34(2), 384-395. 2004.
The "obvious" successional interpretation bites the dust.  SynopsisAbstract/text.
[41 ]
Top height estimation in lodgepole pine sample plots. (by Oscar García and Adrian Batho). Western Journal of Applied Forestry 20(1), 64-68. 2005.
Sequel to [32], this time in English :-)  Abstract/text.  Computer code.
[42 ]
Comparing and combining stem analysis and permanent sample plot data in site index models. Forest Science 51(4), 277-283. 2005.
Abstract/text.
[43 ]
Site index: Concepts and methods.  In: Cieszewski, C. J., and Strub, M.  (eds.).  Second International Conference on Forest Measurements and Quantitative Methods and Management & The 2004 Southern Mensurationists Meeting, p.275-283.  Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.  2006.
Demystifying site modelling (or trying to).  Text (PDF, 308 Kb).
[44 ]
Thinking about Time.  In: Naito, Kenji (ed.)  The Role of Forests for Coming Generations -- Philosophy and Technology for Forest Resource Management, p.47-54.  Japan Society of Forest Planning Press.   Utsunomiya, Japan, 2005.
Not as philosophical as it sounds, about dynamic modelling and scales.  Preprint.
[45 ]
TADAM: A dynamic whole-stand approximation for the TASS growth model. The Forestry Chronicle 81(4), 575-581, 2005. Errata: 81(6), 815, 2005.
Easier [39], with documentation of pine and spruce versions.  Abstract/textErrata: chunk missing in the conclusions.
[46 ]
Distributions and spatial structure.  In: Reynolds, Keith M. (ed)  "Sustainable forestry in theory and practice:  Recent advances in inventory and monitoring, statistics and modeling, information and knowledge management, and policy science".  USDA Forest Service,  Pacific Northwest Research Station, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-688.  CD-ROM and on line.
More on dbh distributions and individual-tree models (see [23] and [49]).  Text.
[47 ]
Unifying sigmoid univariate growth equations. Forest Biometry, Modelling and Information Sciences 1, 63-68. 2005.
The Theory of Everything   :-)     Text
Typo: page 65, missing minus sign in the exponent of the Korf.
[48 ]
Modelling height development of mature Nothofagus obliqua  (by Christian Salas and Oscar Garcia).  Forest Ecology and Management229, 1-6. 2006.
Dealing with stem-analysis data, breast-height ages, constrained site curves, etc.   Abstract/text on line.  Preprint.
[49 ]
Scale and spatial structure effects on tree size distributions: Implications for growth and yield modelling..  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36(11), 2983-2993. 2006.
Individual-tree modelling is not as simple as generally thought.  Abstract/Text at CJFR website.  Local copy (PDF, 398 Kb).  Typo:  on first page, 2nd column, line 5, "error-variables" should be "error-in-variables".
[50 ]
De Perthuis and the origins of site index: A historical note  (by Adrian Batho and Oscar Garcia). Forest Biometry, Modelling and Information Sciences 1, 1-10. 2006.
Site index under the guillotine.    Text.  De Perthuis' book in Google Books.
 [51 ]
Dimensionalidad en los modelos de crecimiento [Dimensionality in growth models] Cuadernos de la Sociedad Española de Ciencias Forestales 23, 19-25. 2007.
The Whole-stand Modeller's Manifesto  :-)    Text (Spanish).  English version in [55], below.
 [52 ]
Visualization of a general family of growth functions and probability distributions-- The Growth-curve Explorer Environmental Modelling and Software 23(12), 1474-1475. 2008.
A follow-up to [47].  doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2008.04.005
 [53 ]
A simple and effective forest stand mortality model Mathematical and Computational Forestry & Nat.-Res. Sci.  1(1), 1-9. 2009.
KISS.  Self-thinning laws (and allometry, etc.) may be largely consequences of Garcia's log principle: "Anything plotted on log-log coordinates tends to a straight line"  :-)    Text.
[54 ]
A height-growth and site-index model for interior spruce in the Sub-Boreal Spruce biogeoclimatic zone of British Columbia  (by Zhengjun Hu and Oscar García) Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40(6), 1175–1183. 2010.
An application of [42], with some twists.  doi:10.1139/X10-075
[55 ]
Models and limits to predictability.  Natural Resources and Environmental Studies Institute Occasional Paper No. 6, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, B.C., Canada. 2010.
English version of [51].  Download (NRESI)
[56 ]
A parsimonious dynamic stand model for interior spruce in British Columbia.  Forest Science 57(4), 265-280. 2011.
Development of Scube, see web site Abstract / text. Preprint.
[57 ]
Dynamical implications of the variability representation in site-index modelling. European Journal of Forest Research 130(4), 671-675. 2011.
Not another long and complicated paper.  This is short and complicated!  doi: 10.1007/s10342-010-0458-0.
Afterthought: May have been better to label the second column of Table 1 as "Transition function" rather than "Flow equation". The three entries in each row are different but equivalent ways of describing a flow.
[58 ]
A biologically-consistent stand growth model for loblolly pine in the Piedmont physiographic region, USA (by O. García, H.E. Burkhart, and R.L. Amateis). Forest Ecology and Management 262(11), 2035–2041. 2011.
Reputable authors to the rescue!  This is easier to read than [56], it was possible to omit many distracting details. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2011.08.047PreprintWeb site.
[59 ]
LINK News: Growth and yield of interior spruce: filling in the blanks. BC Journal of Ecosystems and Management 12(3), xvi–xvii. 2011.
Short note.  Text (BCJEM).
[60 ]
Self-thinning limits in two and three dimensions Mathematical and Computational Forestry & Nat.-Res. Sci.  4(2), 66-72. 2012. Abstract / Text (MCFNS).
Flatland from the air  :-)    The slopes of Reineke's  (log N + bd log D = c1),  3/2 law  (log N + bv log v = c2),  and Hart-Becking  (log N + bh log H = c3)  limits are not independent, they must satisfy  bd bv + 2 bv bh - bd bh = 0 .  New "stand density index":  N D3.4 / H2 .
[61 ]
Building a dynamic growth model for trembling aspen in Western Canada without age data Canadian Journal of Forest Research 43(3), 256-265. 2013.
Among other things, the age-independence facilitates introducing adjustments for climate change, and greatly reduces any effects of past changes on the parameter estimates. Typo: the exponent of N in equation [19d] should be 0.09578, not 0.06518. doi: 10.1139/cjfr-2012-0366. Preprint.
[62 ]
Forest Stands as Dynamical Systems: An Introduction Modern Applied Science 7(5), 32-38. 2013.
"Dynamical Systems for Dummies"(just kidding).  Open access: doi: 10.5539/mas.v7n5p32. I recently learned of an early example of System Dynamics forest growth model by Ung, Beaulieu, and Bégin (1978), following earlier work by Kalgraf and Egeberg in Norway.
[63 ]
A site index model for lodgepole pine in British Columbia  (by A. Batho and O. García) Forest Science 60(5), 982-987. 2014.
Screening for past suppression. doi: 10.5849/forsci.13-509. Preprint.
[64 ]
Developing a dynamic growth model for teak plantations in India  (by V.P. Tewari, J.G. álvarez-González, and O. García).  Forest Ecosystems 1:9. 2014.Abstract / Text.
[65 ]
A generic approach to spatial individual-based modelling and simulation of plant communities Mathematical and Computational Forestry and Nat.-Res. Sci. (MCFNS) 6(1), 36-47. 2014. Abstract, text, code listings (at Journal site). Local copy of article.
An R platform for experimenting with distance-dependent individual-tree models. Web site.
[66 ]
Can plasticity make spatial structure irrelevant in individual-tree models?. Forest Ecosystems 2014, 1:16. Article.
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