Michael P. Gillingham

Cumulative Impacts Book

  Gillingham, M., G. Halseth, C. Johnson, and M. Parkes (editors). 2016. The Integration Imperative – Cumulative Environmental, Community and Health Impacts of Multiple Natural Resource Developments. Springer , 256 pp.

Selected Peer-reviewed Articles

Because of journal copyright issues, I cannot post the PDF files for many of these articles. If there is not a link to the PDF file next to the article, please click on the email icon next to the article and I will send you a copy.

Mumma, M.A., M.P. Gillingham, C.J. Johnson, and K.L. Parker. 2017. Understanding predation risk and individual variation in risk avoidance for threatened boreal caribou. Ecology and Evolution 2017;00:1–12. (doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3563)

McCulley, A.A., K.L. Parker, and M.P. Gillingham. 2017. Yukon Moose: I. Seasonal resource selection by males and females in a multi-predator boreal ecosystem. Alces 53:113–136.
McCulley, A.A., K.L. Parker, and M.P. Gillingham. 2017. Yukon Moose: II. Range sizes, movement rates, and use of elevation and land cover by males and females. Alces 53:137–157.
Bridger, M.C., C.J. Johnson, and M.P. Gillingham. 2017. Working with experts to quantify changes in the abundance of furbearers following rapid and large-scale forest harvesting. Forest Ecology and Management 402:194–203. (10.1016/j.foreco.2017.07.045)
Higgins, R.J., M.P. Gillingham, and B.S. Lindgren. 2017. Critical habitat elements, with an emphasis on coarse woody debris, associated with ant presence or absence in the moist cold sub-boreal forests of the interior of British Columbia. Forests (Special Issue on Coarse Woody Debris of Forests in a Changing World). Forests 8(4):129; doi:10.3390/f8040129
Bridger, M.C., C.J. Johnson, and M.P. Gillingham. 2016. Assessing cumulative impacts of forest development on the distribution of furbearers using expert-based habitat modeling. Ecological Applications 26:499–514.
Sittler, K.L, K.L. Parker, and M.P. Gillingham. 2015. Resource separation by Stone's sheep and elk on a landscape of prescribed burns. Journal of Wildlife Management. 79: 591-604.
Steenweg, R.W., M.P. Gillingham, K.L. Parker and D.C. Heard. 2015. Considering sampling approaches when determining carnivore diets: theimportance of where, how and when scats are collected. Mammal Research 60:207-216 . (DOI: 10.1007/s13364-015-0222-4).
Rea, R.V., O. Hjeljord, and M.P. Gillingham. 2015. Factors influencing the use of willow and birch browse by moose in winter. European Journal of Wildlife Research 61: 231-239 (DOI 10.1007/s10344-014-0891-3).
Hanley, T.A., M.P. Gillingham, and K.L. Parker. 2014. Composition of Diets Selected by Sitka Black-tailed Deer on Channel Island, Central Southeast Alaska. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Research Note PNW-RN-570, 23 pp.
Sittler, K.L., K.L. Parker , M.P. Gillingham, R.D. Wheate, and D.C. Heard. 2014. Burning for wildlife: effects of prescribed fire. NRESi Research Extension Note Number 9, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC., 18 pp.
Hawkshaw, S.C.F, M.P. Gillingham, and M. Shrimpton. 2014. Habitat characteristics affecting occurrence of a fluvial species in a watershed altered by a large reservoir. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 23:383–394. [doi: 10.1111/eff.12092].
Le Saout, S., S. Chollet, S. Chamaillé-Jammes, L. Blanc, S. Padié, T. Verchere, T. Gaston, M. Gillingham, O. Gimenez, K. Parker, D. Picot, H. Verheyden, and J.-L. Martin. 2013. Understanding the paradox of deer persisting at high numbers in heavily browsed habitats. Wildlife Biology20(3):122-135.
Gillingham, M.P., 2013. A Review of A Primer of Ecological Statistics (2nd Edition). The American Statistician. 67(4):264.
Martin, Jean-Louis, Simon Chollet, and Michael Gillingham. 2013. Odocoileus hemionus (Columbia and Sitka black-tailed deer). In Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International
Cadsand, B., M. Gillingham, D. Heard, K. Parker, and G. Mowat. 2013. Potential Effects of Heliskiing on Mountain Goats: Recommendations for Updated Guidelines. NRESi Research Extension Note Number 8, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC., 14 pp.
Milakovic, B., K.L. Parker, D.D. Gustine, R.J. Lay, A.B.D. Walker, and M.P. Gillingham. 2012. Seasonal habitat use and selection by grizzly bears in northern British Columbia.  Journal of Wildlife Management 76:170-180.
Cadsand, B.A., B. Jex, and M.P. Gillingham. 2012. Modified clover trap for capturing goats in northwest British Columbia.  Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Council 17th Biennial Symposium Proceedings.
Witter, L.A., C.J. Johnson, B. Croft, A. Gunn, and M.P. Gillingham. 2011. Behavioural trade-offs in response to external stimuli: time allocation of an Arctic ungulate during varying intensities of harassment by parasitic flies. Journal of Animal Ecology. 81:284-295.
Milakovic, B., K.L. Parker, D.D. Gustine, R.J. Lay, A.B.D. Walker, and M.P. Gillingham. 2011. Habitat selection by a focal predator (Canis lupus) in a multi-prey ecosystem of the northern Rockies. Journal of Mammalogy 92: 568-582.
Klingenberg, M.D., B.S. Lindgren, M.P. Gillingham, and B.H. Aukema. 2010. Anthropogenic response to an outbreak of mountain pine beetle creates new challenges from Warren root collar weevil. Journal of Applied Ecology 46:566-574.
Goddard, A.D., R.D. Dawson, and M.P. Gillingham. 2009. Habitat selection by nesting and brood-rearing sharp-tailed grouse in Northeastern British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology.
Parker, K.L., P.S. Barboza, and M.P. Gillingham. 2009. Nutrition influences on survival and reproduction of cervids. Functional Ecology 23:57-69.
Helle, S., A.L. Fredeen, P.M. Rutherford, G. Halseth, M.P. Gillingham, K. Parker, and H. Massicotte. 2009. Biomass energy in central British Columbia: framing the issues. Natural Resources and Environmental Studies Institute Occasional Paper No. 4, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, B.C. 35 pp.
Psyllakis, J.M. and M.P. Gillingham. 2009. Using forest structure and composition to predict the occurrence of vertebrate species in Douglas-Fir forests of British Columbia. Biological Conservation 142:1427-1441. [doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2009.02.008.]
Ayotte, J.B., K.L. Parker, and M.P. Gillingham. 2008. Use of natural licks by four ungulate species in north-central British Columbia. Journal of Mammalogy 89:1041-1050.
Gillingham, M. P. 2008. Ecology of black-tailed deer in north coast environments. Proceedings of a symposium: Lessons from the Islands: Introduced Species and What They Tell Us About How Ecosystems Work RGIS 2002 Conference, 2-5 October 2002.
Gillingham, M.P., and K.L. Parker. 2008. Differential habitat selection by moose and elk in the Besa-Prophet Area of northern British Columbia. Alces 44:41-63.
Gillingham, M.P., and K.L. Parker. 2008. The importance of individual variation in defining habitat selection by moose in northern British Columbia.  Alces 44: 7-20.
Rea, R.V., and M.P. Gillingham. 2008. Effects of plant compensation across sites on regression estimates of shoot biomass and length. Alces 44:21-30.
Johnson, C.J., and M.P. Gillingham. 2008. Sensitivity of species-distribution models to error, bias, and model design: An application of resource selection functions for woodland caribou. Ecological Modelling 213:143-155.
Jones, E.S., M.P. Gillingham, D.R. Seip, and D.C. Heard. 2007. Comparison of seasonal habitat selection between threatened woodland caribou ecotypes in central British Columbia. Rangifer 17:111-128.
Rea, R.V., and M.P. Gillingham. 2007. Initial Effects of Brush Cutting and Shoot Removal on Willow Browse Quality. Range Ecology and Management 60:566-573.
Psyllakis, J.M., and M.P. Gillingham. 2007. Considerations when validating vertebrate species-structure models.  Proceedings of the Monitoring the Effectiveness of Biological Conservation Conference, 2-4 November, 2004. Richmond, British Columbia (available from http://www.forrex.org/events/mebc/papers.html).
Walker, A.B.D., K.L. Parker, M.P. Gillingham, D.D. Gustine, and R.J. Lay. 2007. Habitat selection and movements of Stone’s sheep in relation to vegetation, topography and risk of predation. Ecoscience 14:55-70.
Ayotte, J.B., K.L. Parker, J.M. Arocena, and M.P. Gillingham. 2006. Chemical composition of lick soils: functions of soil ingestion by four ungulate species. Journal of Mammalogy 87:878-888.
Baxter, D.J.M, J.M. Psyllakis, M.P. Gillingham, and E.L. O’Brien. 2006. Behavioural response of bats to perceived predation risk while foraging. Ethology 112:977-983.
Gustine, D.D., K.L. Parker, R.J. Lay, M.P. Gillingham, and D.C. Heard. 2006. Calf survival of woodland caribou in a multi-predator ecosystem. Wildlife Monograph 165, 32 pp.
Gustine, D.D., K.L. Parker, R.J. Lay, M.P. Gillingham, and D.C. Heard. 2006. Interpreting resource selection between scales among individual woodland caribou in winter. Journal of Wildlife Management 70:1602-1614.
Johnson, C.J., K.L. Parker, D.C. Heard, and M.P. Gillingham. 2006. Unrealistic animal movement rates as behavioural bouts: a reply. Journal of Animal Ecology 75:303-308.
Jones, S.J., D.C. Heard, and M.P. Gillingham. 2006. Temporal Variation in Stable Carbon (δ13C) and Nitrogen (δ15N) Isotopes of Grizzly Bear Guardhair and Underfur. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:1320-1325.
Schroff, A.Z., B. S. Lindgren, and M.P. Gillingham. 2006. Random Acts of Weevil: a spatial analysis of Hylobius warreni attack on Pinus contorta var. latifolia in the Sub-boreal Spruce Zone of Northern British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management 227:42-49.
Walker, A.B.C, K.L. Parker, and M.P. Gillingham. 2006. Behaviour, habitat associations and intrasexual difference of Stone’s sheep ewes. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 84:1187-1201.
Johnson, C.J., and M.P. Gillingham. 2005. An evaluation of mapped species distribution models used for conservation planning. Environmental Conservation 32:117-128.
Johnson, C.J. and M.P. Gillingham. 2004. Mapping uncertainty: sensitivity of wildlife habitat ratings to variation in expert opinion. Journal of Applied Ecology 41:1032-1042.
Jones, E., M. Gillingham, D. Heard, D. Seip and G. Watts. 2004. Habitat use of threatened caribou at the transition zone from mountain to northern ecotype (extended abstract). in T.D. Hooper (ed.), Proceedings of the Species at Risk 2004 Pathways to Recovery Conference. March 2-6, 2004, Victoria, B.C.
Johnson, C.J., K.L. Parker, D.C. Heard, and M.P. Gillingham. 2002. A multiscale behavioral approach to understanding the movements of woodland caribou. Ecological Applications 12:1840-1860.
Johnson, C.J., K.L. Parker, D.C. Heard, and M.P. Gillingham. 2002. Movement parameters of ungulates and scale-specific responses to the environment. Journal of Animal Ecology 71:225-235.
Gillingham, M.P., K.L. Parker, and T.A. Hanley. 2001. Habitat use by black-tailed deer in relation to intake rate. Alces 37:339-352.
Rea, R.V. and M.P. Gillingham. 2001. The impact of the timing of brush management on the nutritional value of woody browse for moose (Alces alces). Journal of Applied Ecology 38: 710-719.
Harrison, D.G., M.P. Gillingham, and G. Stenhouse. 2001. Comparing Methods to Determine Distribution and Movement Patterns of Forest-dwelling Mountain Goats. Proc. Bienn. Symposium of the North American Wild Sheep and Goat Council 11: 81-95.
Gillingham, M.P., K.L. Parker, and T.A. Hanley. 2000. Partial consumption of Shield Fern, Dryopteris dilatata, Rhizomes by Black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis, and its potential impacts. Canadian Field Naturalist 114:21-25.
Parker, K.L., M.P. Gillingham, T.A. Hanley, and C.T. Robbins. 1999. Energy and protein balance of free-ranging black-tailed deer in a natural forest environment. Wildlife Monographs 143. 48 pp.
Colescott, J.H., and M.P. Gillingham. 1998. Reaction of moose (Alces alces) to snowmobile traffic in the Greys River Valley, Wyoming. Alces 34: 327-338.
Gillingham, M.P., K.L. Parker, and T.A. Hanley. 1997. Forage intake by large herbivores in a natural environment: bout dynamics. Canadian Journal of Zoology 75:1118-1128.
Lovvorn, J.R. and M.P. Gillingham. 1996. Food dispersion, search strategies, and foraging energetics: a mechanistic synthesis for field studies of avian benthivores. Ecology. 77: 435-451.
Lovvorn, J.R. and M.P. Gillingham. 1996. A Spatial Energetics Model of Cadmium Accumulation by Diving Ducks. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 30:241-251.
Parker, K.L., M.P. Gillingham, T.A. Hanley, and C.T. Robbins. 1996. Foraging efficiency: energy expenditure versus energy gain in free-ranging black-tailed deer. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74:442-450.
Parker, K.L., M.P. Gillingham, and T.A. Hanley. 1993. An accurate technique for estimating forage intake of tractable animals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:1462-1465.
Parker, K.L., G.D. DelGiudice, and M.P. Gillingham. 1993. Do urinary urea nitrogen and cortisol ratios of creatinine reflect body fat reserves in black-tailed deer? Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:1841-1848.
Parker, K.L., M.P. Gillingham, T.A. Hanley, and C.T. Robbins. 1993. Seasonal patterns in body weight, body condition, and water transfer rates of free-ranging and captive black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) in Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:1397-1404.
Gillingham, M.P., and K.L. Parker. 1992. Simple timing device increases reliability of recording telemetric activity data. Journal of Wildlife Management 56:191-196.
Gillingham, M.P., and D.R. Klein. 1992. Late-winter activity patterns of moose (Alces alces gigas) in western Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70:293-299.
Parker, K.L., and M.P. Gillingham. 1990. Estimates of critical thermal environments for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus). Journal of Range Management 43:73-81.
Parker, K.L., R.G. White, M.P. Gillingham, and D.F. Holleman. 1990. Comparison of energy metabolism in relation to daily activity and milk consumption by caribou and muskox neonates. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68:106-114.
  Gillingham, M.P., and F.L. Bunnell. 1989. Effects of learning on food selection and searching behaviour of deer. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:24-32.
Gillingham, M.P., and F.L. Bunnell. 1989. Black-tailed deer foraging bouts: dynamic events. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:1353-1362.
Gillingham, M.P., M.R. Speyer, S. Northway, and R. McLaughlin. 1987. Feeding preference and its relation to herbivore repellent studies. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 17:146-149.
Gillingham, M.P. and F.L. Bunnell. 1985. Reliability of motion-sensitive radio-collars for estimating activity of black-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Management 49:951-958.
  Bunnell, F.L., and M.P. Gillingham. 1985. Foraging behaviour: dynamics of dining out. pp. 53-79 In R.J. Hudson and R.G. White (eds.). Bioenergetics of Wild Herbivores. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.