B.Sc. – Genetics, University of Alberta
M.Sc.- Zoology, University of Alberta, “The use of cytochrome b sequence variation to assess genetic difference between species and subspecies of Vireo (Aves)”. Co-supervisors: Curtis Strobeck and W. Bruce McGillivray
Ph.D. – Biology, McMaster University , “Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class II sequence variation in cetaceans: DQB and DRB variation in beluga(Delphinapterus leucas) and DQB variation in North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis)”. Supervisor: Bradley N. White.
Max-Planck Institute for Biology, Department of Immunogenetics
University of Guelph, Department of Zoology
Zhejiang University, PRC (2002-2005)