There is increasing evidence that psychological characteristics contribute to risk of heart disease. Two characteristics that have attracted interest are hostility and anger. Our research has indicated that both hostility and anger affect the heart and circulation. These characteristics can possibly affect heart disease by either changes in the body or changes in the way people act. Bodily changes may happen through the effect of stress on the so-called "fight or flight" system, which affects how the heart and blood vessels behave. A more subtle set of changes may happen because of the behaviour engaged in by hostile or angry people. Hostile, angry behaviour is unpleasant to others who may react to the hostile angry person in a way that increases their stress. Interestingly, we have also found that hostile people lack protective behaviour that may reduce stress--they do not show signs to other people that indicate they are not a threat. Similarly, recent research by other psychologists shows that other heart-disease risk factors are accompanied by negative interpersonal problem-solving behaviour. This research will look at several of these issues. We are interested in discovering whether anger produces greater changes in the functioning of the heart and circulation than happiness, in whether people who have a better understanding of emotions are protected against some of these influences and in whether we can confirm the importance of interpersonal behaviour as a factor in heart disease risk. This will be done by recording blood pressure and other aspects of the heart's activity from volunteers as they relive experiences they have had of anger and happiness. We will also record their emotional behaviour by videotaping them and measuring their facial expressions. In another experiment, the same people will act out how they would behave if they had to deal with someone who was causing an unpleasant situation. Our volunteers' behaviour will be recorded on videotape and analysed to determine whether hostility and emotional sophistication affect how skilful they are in this stressful situation. The results of this study should help us understand better how both the mind and the body can contribute to risk of heart disease. Our study of the effects of emotional sophistication should help develop psychological techniques to reduce risk of heart disease, since emotional sophistication can, in principle, be learned through psychological therapies. Similarly, our study of social behaviours in stressful situations, if successful, should help us develop risk identification and early intervention strategies that would be very unique in targeting a seldom-thought-about source of poor health: interpersonal behaviour.