*Douglas-fir pitch moth
|Host: Boles of pines and spruce
Host: Boles of pines, spruce Douglas-fir
|The white, cream-coloured,
or pinkish larvae of these insects feed on phloem of live trees, causing
Damage: These moths are called clearwing moths because of a lack of scales on much of the wings. Very large pitch masses, often associated with injury, Cronartium rust cankers, or Endocronartium galls on bole. Larvae tend to mine horizontally. Repeated attack can lead to breakage. Not a severe problem in natural stands, but can be significant in ornamental and high value situations, e.g., seed orchards and provenance trials.
|Host: Lodgepole and ponderosa pine.||Damage: Causes pitch masses on the bole at Cronartium cankers. See also Twig and Branch Insects.|
|This group includes some of the most serious
forest pests. Adult beetles bore into the phloem, where they construct
a tunnel, or gallery. Eggs are laid along the sides of the tunnel, and
the larvae mine in the phloem. Many species have symbiotic fungi. Some
species are also associated with root
The Bark Beetle Management Guidebook is an additional information source.
|Host:Primarily lodgepole pine, other pines.||Damage: Causes widespread mortality
in mature and overmature stands throughout the range of lodgepole pine.
Natural agent of lodgepole pine mortality in the absence of fire.
Management: Sanitation logging, baiting and cutting, single tree removal or lethal trap trees, reducing stand susceptibility by partial cutting.
|Host: Spruce||Damage: Causes widespread mortality
in mature spruce stands continent wide. Normally confined to dead or dying
trees, preferably down trees. Population buildup occurs following blowdown
and logging. Outbreaks can be severe.
Management: Sanitation logging, lethal and conventional trap trees, baiting and cutting.
|Host: Douglas-fir, rarely western larch||Damage: Causes locally severe
mortality in overmature and stressed Douglas-fir in the dry interior, and
occasionally in wetter areas. This bark beetle prefers dead trees. Often
two flights in the interior, one in early spring, one in mid- to late summer.
Outbreaks in British Columbia tend to be patchy and of short duration,
but are significant because of the value of the trees.
Management: Conventional trap trees, sanitation harvesting, partial cutting.
Note: The distribution map in the guidebook is incorrect. Douglas-fir beetles occur throughout the range of its host.
|*Western pine beetle,||Host: Ponderosa pine||Damage: Causes occasional mortality
to ponderosa pine in B.C. Major pest in western United States, where it
can have multiple, overlapping generations (3 or more).
Management: Sanitation harvesting.
|Host: Pines.||Damage: Widely distributed. Our largest Dendroctonus species. Rarely causes mortality, but commonly associated with other species on ponderosa pine and other pines. Large reddish pitch tubes at base of trees characteristic.|
|Host: Lodgepole pine.||Damage: Large pitch tubes low on bole of injured or stressed trees, e.g., at cutblock edges. Also common on stumps and sometimes on felled or windthrown trees. Not important pest.|
|*Pine engraver||Host: Pines||Damage: Transcontinental, normally
secondary species. Usually associated with mountain pine beetle, occupying
the upper bole. May kill trees near slash piles, or when trees are stressed.
Significant problem in intermountain region of the U.S. after thinning
Note: Several other Ips species may be abundant on pine. E.g. Ips mexicanus and Ips latidens.
Management: Reduce breeding material, e.g., slash.
|*Northern spruce engraver,||Host: Spruce||Damage: Normally secondary species,
found on spruce in association with the spruce beetle. It has caused widespread
mortality of spruce in Alaska.
Note: Several other Ips species may be found on spruce as well. E.g. Ips tridens and Ips borealis.
|Fir engraver,||Host: Abies spp.||Damage: Occasionally serious on grand fir in dryer locations, e.g., Kootenays and locally in dry coastal areas. Severe pest in parts of U.S., particularly on off-site planted firs.|
European elm bark beetle,
|Host: Elms||Damage: Introduced species vectoring Dutch elm disease. Spreading west, but has yet to be introduced to B.C. In areas where it is established, American elms have virtually been eliminated.|
balsam bark beetle,
|Host: Subalpine fir||Damage: Causes scattered mortality
of subalpine fir over large areas. Has not been given much attention due
to low utilization of host tree, but becoming an increasing concern.
Management: Sanitation harvesting, baiting and cutting.
|Host: Spruce||Damage: Small bark beetle often associated with the spruce beetle. Can cause mortality.|
|*Pityogenes plagiatus knechteli||Host: Pines||Damage: Small bark beetle that can cause mortality in thinned or stressed immature lodgepole pine. Normally associated with Ips pini.|
European pine shoot beetle,
|Host: Pines||Damage: Recently introduced around the Great Lakes. Breeds in dead or dying pine. Flies extremely early, thereby displacing native pine bark beetles like Ips pini. Causes damage by maturation feeding in pine shoots. Also concern that it may become a primary species on new hosts.|
|Host: Abies spp||Damage: Rarely serious, but have been known to cause widespread mortality of Abies spp. along with the Fir root bark beetle, Pseudohylesinus granulatus. The silver fir beetle is also found on western hemlock and Douglas-fir, often in association with root pathogens.|
The following three beetles are often vectors of disease organisms, e.g.
stain root disease.
The following beetles are also included in the Root Insects pathonotes
|Hylastes nigrinus||Hosts: conifers||Damage: Adults feed on fine roots of large, dead trees, and on roots of small weakened trees, occasionally killing trees through girdling. Eggs are laid on roots.|
|Hylurgops porosus||Hosts: Conifers||Damage: Common throughout the west. Breeds in lower bole and root collar.|
|Hylurgops subcostulatus||Hosts: Conifers||Damage: Attacks pines throughout the west. Called "sour sap beetles", due to their habit of breeding under the bark of wet, fermenting conifers, e.g. roots or tree boles in contact with the ground.|
|Homoptera||Insects with sucking mouthparts. They feed on the juices of plant cells|
|Host: Abies spp.||Damage: Introduced from Europe. Causes mortality in Abies species by triggering a wide spread hypersensitive response in the host. Currently spreading north and east in British Columbia. Strict quarantines apply.|